Casa Biggest Real Estate Company – Provides Cheapest Spanish Property For Sale/Rent

Casa is the emerging Spanish property portal site has Spanish properties for sale in Spain and on-rent. Established in 1999, 1Casa serving its clients whose demand like –apartment in Spain,cheap Spanish property, overseas property, villas in Spain, businesses for sale in Spain, bars for sale Spain, property Murcia, property costa blanca Spain etc. 1Casa is managed by Cristina Sanchez from many years. 1Casa is based in Calle Cantarranas , Alora, 29500, Malaga, Spain. 1Casa providing properties for sale across the various locations like Almeria, Granada, Alicante of spain. 1Casa providing the property at affordable rate in Spain and complete/valuable information about the properties. On our site you can find the complete information about the properties whether it may be for new sale, resale, on – rent for various properties like commercial, apartment, villa according to requirement of clients.1Casa, is awarded the no. 1 Real Estate Agency in Spain. Casa is also awarded the best agents among the two hundred Estate Agencies in Spain, voting done by customers not by companies. 1Casa have a satisfied client’s network. The expert teams of 1Casa briefly explain the information about the property and organize tour to that area, which the client is demanding.

Casa is the member of AIPP (Association-of-International-Property- Professionals) and also have committed to follow the code of conduct to help the clients for purchasing and soling the properties in Spain. Every day we update all the properties for sale in Spain, for rent on our site. If any customer wants to deal any property in Spain, all the information about the properties are available on website (http://www.1casa.com). 1Casa is providing the complete information about any property. Customers find the properties here or register their properties for sale by registering on website. All types of properties for new sale, resale, for rent are available on website. Any customer want to buy/sale a Spanish Property or want to make any inquiry they can directly contact by a call. Apartment, Cave house, commercial, villas are available on rent. The rental properties information are also available on website with complete information like location, facilities etc. All the arrangement is done in advance, if customer wants to visit the property’s site, the visiting facilities are available at free of cost. If you are interested to buy the properties in the Malaga and Granada areas, we have specialization in those areas. 1Casa is also providing the highest standard of services. After expensing on the property customer searched for the best service like furniture. 1Casa provided the best quality services at very low and reasonable cost. All of services are priced including full delivery and installation.

About 1Casa :Established in 1999 is managing by Cristina Sanchez from a many no. of years. 1Casa have helped a large number of clients looking for Spanish property for sale. The company is located in Hull with offices in Alora, Malaga. It Provide property for sale in the various area of Spain with good selections in Almeria, Alicante, Malaga, Granada and Jaen areas.

Contact:-Cristina Sanchez(0034)9524955091Casa (Real Estate Company, Spain)

Business Means Profit

The next question which arises is how exhibition, events and fairs are worth for a business. Whether one should really care an use this concept to materialize the business in order to expand business and increase profit.

There two schools which have different parameters for the new era of Exhibition, Events, conferences, summits and trade shows.

One says , in order to be in business , one should attend such happenings to be in limelight of the business world and the expenses is must to be incurred,irrespective of no fruitful result .

The other school says, be in an event, exhibition and fairs and click the chances of business, because, there you are for business and people related to business comes handy. Further, they believe that may be one business man cannot afford to go places of the world to show its products and find buyers , but in such trade shows and exhibitions , you happen to meet as much as people come to
such events .

Both are right to the extent they support exhibition events, conferences, seminars and business summits as they are must for business.

Whereas, third school which is in minority laments such business trade shows to be wastage of time and money. Since, business is by demand and not by visiting events and exhibitions.

When one thinks after having gone through the thoughts aired by different schools of business , following things comes in the mind , which is also affirmed by the different surveys has had been conducted so far as regards to business vs trade shows :


a) Trade shows are must for a business .
b) Buyers and sellers stand on one platform and an get live buy and sell leads.
c) The chances of business to business increases in such events
d) It is economical as approaching different persons takes time and results
wastage of money whereas, such events saves time and money beside increases
probability of increasing the finding of buyers.
e) It increases you exposure to the business world
f) It also shows that you are a true businessman
g) Sometimes , the number of business events and exhibitions attended is taken
as a parameter to judge a company and its products .
h) Its also confirm the saying that one which is seen always, is sold
always.

How to Open the Stuck Lid of a Canning Jar

Once upon a time, the dilemma of how to open the stuck lid of a canning jar – or any jar, for that matter – posed quite a challenge of strength. And sometimes the challenge seemed to require the use of dexterity, cunning, and wit, too.

Thankfully, those days are over.

Now I know how to open a stuck canning jar – and every other jar – regardless of size, shape, or origin. It couldn’t be simpler.

Dexterity is no longer required because gravity is on my side.

Cunning is no longer required because gravity is on my side.

Even wit is no longer required because gravity is still on my side.

As long as I have solid ground to stand on, the problem of how to open the stuck lid of a canning jar is no longer a problem.

And opening the stuck lid of a sticky jar is no longer a problem, either.

All this because gravity is on my side. And so is the power of a vacuum.

No, not the machine you use to suck the dirt out of your carpet. I’m talking about the power of the vacuum that exists as an element of the world of physics. The absence of air. The absence of everything.

As your high school physics teacher said, “Nature abhors a vacuum.” (And when it comes to housework, I do, too.)

But I’ve learned to appreciate harnessing the power of that physical vacuum and I enjoy using the power of gravity to do so.

Here’s how I employ the use of those three elements – solid ground to stand on, gravity, and a vacuum – to open the stuck lid of a canning jar:

I place the jar firmly in one hand (two hands if the jar is really big).

I place my feet squarely and firmly on the solid ground before me. The ground must be hard and smooth – no lawn, carpet, gravel, or other soft or uneven surfaces.

I turn that jar upside down (thanks, gravity!) and bang it squarely and evenly upon that hard surface.

I listen for a shrill but hollow-sounding click!

The magic sound of the click tells me that the vacuum seal has been broken and all it takes now is a light and easy twist of the wrist to open the jar that had been so troublesome a mere bang ago.

I must confess. This doesn’t always work on the first bang. Sometimes I bang the bothersome jar unevenly on the solid ground. This doesn’t work. The jar must hit the surface squarely and evenly in order to release the vacuum seal.

Sometimes I don’t bang the jar onto the floor with the solid strength of determination. This is no time for delicacy.

And sometimes this technique can be startling to a newcomer to the practice. We’re afraid to shatter the glass. We are timid. Cautious.

Don’t be.

It doesn’t take velocity or a great deal of strength to get the jar open. It just takes the right amount of force and the squarely even meeting of the two surfaces to break the seal.

The magic sound – and it will seem like magic once you get the hang of it – actually sounds like the glass rim of the jar might have been broken. It wasn’t. Only the vacuum seal was broken. The canning band around the jar, or the securely stuck sides of a jar from the supermarket, will prevent the glass from breaking. It won’t even crack.

With practice, you’ll be able to know by the sound of it when the seal is broken and when another bang on the floor is needed.

And there are two benefits to using this technique for how to open the stuck lid of a canning jar. First, you’ll quickly and easily get the lid off the jar.

And secondly, the looks on the faces of anyone watching will be amusing beyond compare. And they’ll be so excited to learn your secret once you’ve shared it with them!

My favorite answer for how to open the stuck lid of a canning jar? It’s a matter of science.

 

Causes of Sore Throat

Sore throat is mostly caused by infection and can be the precursor to a number of illnesses. There are few effective treatments but the condition is usually self limiting.

Sore throat is highly unpleasant and unfortunately, a very common symptom. The throat inflammation generally affects the pharynx (pharyngitis) – the major part of the throat area – but sometimes it hits the tonsils, just to make things really painful. This is often the case with children.

The condition can be the opening salvo of an illness that affects the whole body – generally a viral infection.

Causes of Sore Throat

Any irritant such as dust or pollen can cause the throat to become inflamed. If you happen to be allergic to the irritant then the symptom is likely to be worse. Inflammation caused by irritation can open the way for subsequent infection. Viruses are the major cause of sore throat and in second place are bacterial infections. Generally speaking if the cause is viral or bacterial the sore throat will be accompanied by a raised temperature.

  • Viral infections: numerous viruses can be the culprit. Cold and flu viruses, glandular fever, mumps, measles are a few examples. Many of these viruses of course will go on to produce their associated systemic illnesses.
  • Bacterial Infections: haemolytic streptococcus is the bacterium most at home in the throat. Neisseria gonorrhoea – the causative agent of gonorrhoea – is a fairly rare cause. In past times diphtheria was a common infection of the throat that killed many children. Thankfully, due to immunization, it’s much less common now.

Complications

As mentioned above many viral sore throats go on to become systemic illnesses. Mumps, flu, measles and glandular fever can be very unpleasant and occasionally serious illnesses. Bacterial infections can move to other areas of the body: the lungs to cause chest infections, the ear to produce otitis media and into the sinuses. Rarely, streptococcal infections may lead to rheumatic fever and kidney disease.

Treatment

Most sore throats will resolve in a few days with no treatment. If the cause is viral, there isn’t an effective treatment anyway. Symptomatic treatment with throat lozenges or soothing drinks is usually recommended.

Most of the bacteria that invade the throat respond to antibiotics, however this sort of treatment is controversial. A review for the Cochrane Collaboration by Del Mar, Glasziou and Spinks on 27 studies found that antibiotics shortened the duration of sore throat by an average of a day.

The authors suggest that antibiotics are of limited use in the treatment of sore throat. They point to the adverse side effects of antibiotics and to the growing problem of resistance and suggest that they are used only in patients where protecting against secondary infection is a priority.

Self-help

There are many herbal preparations said to ease sore throat. One simple remedy is to steep a tablespoonful of rose petals in hot water for ten minutes, then sweeten with honey if desired. Another is to steep two or three slices of fresh ginger root in hot water and again flavour with honey if wanted. If you’re inclined to the hot and spicy you could try just chewing a piece of raw ginger root, it’s said to be effective.

This article is for information only. If you have a sore throat that doesn’t go in a few days or you have other symptoms, then you should pay a visit to your doctor.

References

Medicine, eds. Souhami and Moxham. Churchill Livingston 2002

The Herb Book by John Lust. Bantam Books 1974

Origin of Cotton Candy Fairy Floss Cotton Candy Spun Sugar

Cotton candy, alias fairy floss or spun sugar, began as a dessert in Italy and Iran in the 1400′s. At that time it was known only as Spun Sugar. The confection was considered a delicacy as heated sugar was hand mixed and forks were used to make long thin strings of sugar. This process was very time consuming, as they had to allow for the sugar strands to dry. For centuries, European chefs used this hands on method to create sugary webs to form Easter eggs, cake toppings and other spectacular edibles.

It wasn’t until 1897, nearly four hundred years later, when Tennessee candy makers, William Morrison and his business partner, John C Wharton, created a machine to heat and spin the sugar, did it become a profitable dessert sold at the circus and fairs.

Morrison and Wharton’s machine eliminated the time involved melting down and drying out the sugar, as well the hand and fork method. Their machine involved a huge bowl that heated up enough to break down the sugar and then spun with centrifugal force to dry out the confection. A hand-held cone-shaped piece of cardboard was used to capture the dried sugar strings. As the candy makers hand spun the one way, the bowl spun the other allowing a round web of the dried sugary dessert to gather on the cone. This was the first Cotton Candy. Although they called it Fairy Floss.

Fairy Floss debut came in 1904 at the St Louis World’s Fair. Morrison and Wharton set up a small booth and sold their sugary confection for 25 cents a box. It was considered outrageously expensive as the price for admittance into the World’s Fair was 50 cents. People were outraged when they saw Morrison and Wharton selling a dessert for half the price of the entire fair. Despite the high cost and complaints, they sold nearly 70,000 boxes at the fair. Just goes to show you, Americans have always had a sweet tooth and cost will not deter it.

Soon candy stores and five and dimes across America and the World were purchasing Morrison’s and Wharton’s Fairy Floss machine. Some store owners called it Spun Sugar and others kept the Fairy Floss name. It wasn’t until the 1920′s they came up with a more uniform name for the sugary concoction. ” Cotton Candy”. At least that is what we Americans call it. Europeans kept names such as Candy Floss and Fairy Floss. No matter what you call it, it’s delicious.

Today, Cotton Candy is sold at just about every event held in the World. It has become popular enough for grocery stores to sell bags of it in the candy isles. Though cotton candy comes in many different colors, pink has always been the most popular. The ever diverse rainbow runs a close second. In the past 112 years, technology has allowed for more productivity, however, the machine created in 1897, is basically still used, with only a few modifications.

How to brew organic Kombucha tea

Kombucha tea, also known as Manchurian tea or mushroom tea, is a fermented tea which is said to offer many health benefits.

If you are interested in making your own Kombucha, you will first need to obtain a starter, a pancake-like living colony of yeast and bacteria. You may be able to find Kombucha starters on the Internet, but ideally you should get a fresh one from a friend who is already brewing their own mushroom tea.

Equipment

Kombucha is very acidic, so you will need a cooking pot made of acid resistant material, and a one gallon fermentation container of acid-resistant material such as china or glass.  You will also need a wooden spoon to stir the mixture, clean cloths to protect the fermenting mixture from contamination, and glass bottles for storing the finished tea.

Ingredients

Kombucha is produced by brewing black or green tea, adding sugar to feed the mushroom, then leaving it to ferment for between one and two weeks.  If you wish to ensure that your Kombucha is a hundred percent organic, use organic green tea, African red bush tea, or herb tea, and use organic honey as a sweetener.

Procedure

Cleanliness is crucial when you are preparing your Kombucha, so always wash your hands and all your equipment thoroughly.

To begin, boil two quarts of water in a large stainless steel or heatproof glass pot.

Add 6 teabags or 6 teaspoons of loose tea and allow to steep for at least 15 minutes.

Remove tea bags or strain out loose tea, stir in a cup of honey, and pour the tea into a china, glass or pottery container.

Add the “mushroom” starter, cover with a clean cloth (a tea towel is ideal), and leave for between 7 and 14 days. The longer you leave the tea to ferment, the more acidic it will become.

Pour most of the fermented liquid into glass bottles, leaving one cupful behind to maintain the starter, and store you fermented tea in the fridge.

You are now ready to prepare another batch.

You will notice that your “mushroom” will gradually thicken and eventually you will be able to peel a new mushroom away from the “mother” and pass it on to a friend.

If your culture becomes dark brown or becomes contaminated with mould, throw it away and use a new culture.

There is some debate about the benefits of drinking a cup of Kombucha tea every morning. It is supposed to detoxify the system and provide a general feeling of well being. It is also something of an acquired taste, and could possibly also cause allergic reactions.

So prepare carefully and use with caution.

Commonly Known Causes of Pain in Lower Left Abdomen

Pain in lower left abdomen is caused by different health disorders like irritable bowel syndrome, left ectopic pregnancy, left ovarian disorder, kidney stone, etc. The pain may be severe or light depending on the disease and can be treated. Here we list these common causes as below:

Body : – Abdominal pain is normally experienced by almost every one of us at least once in a lifetime. There are various causes of abdominal pain. Speaking in layman’s language, the abdominal pain can be categorized in four parts namely upper right abdominal pain, lower right abdominal pain, upper left abdominal pain and lower left abdominal pain. Pain in each part is caused due to different health issues. It is caused due to various disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, ovarian disorder, kidney stone or infection, left ectopic pregnancy, etc. These causes can be explained as:

Bowel disorders : – One can experience pain in abdomen due bowel disorders like bowel cancer, bowel obstruction, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and constipation. In all these disorders, pain is experience on the lower left abdomen only if the left side of the abdomen is more affected. Some of the symptoms observed in person suffering from lower left abdominal pain are change in bowel habit, feeling like vomiting, feeling bloated, poor appetite and other such symptoms.

Kidney stone and kidney infection : – Kidney stone causes very severe pain in the abdomen. The pain due to kidney stone is spread over complete groin area and even the lower abdomen. The person having this disorder also experiences pain in lower back and feels like vomiting. Similarly, the pain in lower abdomen on the left side can be caused because of kidney infection. The person with such disorder feels like vomiting and feverish. Also, the person experiences pain or burning sensation while passing urine.

Ovarian disorder and ectopic pregnancy : – Ovarian disorders are many like endometriosis, ovarian cyst, etc. Although broadly speaking ectopic pregnancy is very much related to ovarian disorder, it is slightly different and is caused in the tubes to the ovaries. The women experiences dull to sharp pain in such disorders. In fact, in some cases the women also bleed through vagina. The pain is experienced on the left side only if the left part of the womb or ovary is affected by any of these disorders.

All these disorders along with many others like hernia, food poisoning, diverticulitis, etc. causes abdominal pain in lower left side. There are many other causes too which are not mentioned only because they are not commonly found. Irrespective of the causes being common or rare, the disorders causing lower left abdominal pain can be treated if diagnosed in early stage. So, see a doctor as soon as you experience pain in lower abdomen or even on upper abdomen to avoid major health issues later.

Top Ten Tips To Dating Younger Men

Given that Demi and also Ashton started dating the entire older woman/younger male relationship powerful came to be a ton even more socially appropriate, even if your urgent social circle disagrees. Dating a younger man can have its advantages and also happy times, however even its down side too. To get the most out of dating a younger man, try these strategies.

1. While this is definitely shallow, however then exactly what young man isn’t, just before heading out to catch your more youthful guy, you will have to be positive and also feel hot already. This might indicate spending lots of time in the gym, purchasing a couple of self support books, or purchasing a couple of treatments with your friendly psycho therapist. Having your head in the video game and also being the type of girl who dates more youthful men implies that you are much more most likely to actually date a more youthful guy.

2. Don’t be cautious. More youthful men do not essentially have the assurance of more mature men, so you could have to make the 1st step. Send the understated signal for yes and men of any age could have it. Be careful not to overdo this signal; simply as there are creepy males out there, you can become the creepy lady at the end of the bar.

3. Do not permit your age come to be an issue. If you handle your age as simply another amount, so will he. There are 2 means to go about this, flirtatiously stay clear of the inquiry and also you understand ways to do that already, or to simply address him outright. Either method, just be confident concerning it, do not have thrilled regarding it, and also perdition step on to another subject.

4. Bear in mind that he is heading to be much more active than guys your age. This indicates that he is likely to call at the last moment as well as want to head to where the interesting is. This might be your local club or it can be to Atlantic Town for some drinking and gaming. Be all set for it and also you could be astonished by exactly how much entertainment life is.

5. No little pills to perform. Ladies, you understand just what I indicate. More youthful men can easily execute generally far better and also much more commonly than their older equivalents. This can suggest hours or days of fun.

6. More youthful guys are typically even more willing to take directions from you, both in and also out of the bed room. You are attractive, positive, and also comfortable in your very own skin. You know just what you desire, so inquire for it, with a younger guy you most likely will obtain.

7. He will wish to show you off, and you will definitely help him make a wonderful perception too. This one does not always benefit you, with the exception of maybe an ego boost for you. He will definitely want to take you to work celebrations, out with his pals, and also additional locations too. You have the encounter to understand the best ways to function in each situation and aid make everybody comfy with the situation.

8. Unless he proclaims his undying love for you, takes you home to mom and also daddy, and makes an appointment at the fertility facility, do not count on the partnership being forever. Many likely a young man is simply out for a good time yet does not consider you significant marital relationship material for the straightforward truth that they could want youngsters and to leave their own mark on the globe.

9. To maintain from mooning over the loss of # 8, maintain fresh numbers in your hand-held organizer all the time. This will keep your attitude light, the current relationship fresh, and also if he does leave, you will definitely be prepared to bounce back after a pint of chocolate mint and some charming comedies.

10. This one must be a life guideline as well as not merely a guideline for dating more youthful men, but care for you. If you need an evening off to rest, take it. If you would like to see an art display yet your younger male doesn’t, tell your man that you are going, yet well and sensibly. Consume right, consume a lot of water, and also of course pamper on your own every now and then, yet you currently recognized all that.

Tobacco and Americans

Tobacco and African Americans

  • About 176,000 African Americans live in Washington, representing 3.3 percent of the state’s population.
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • In Washington state, 32.8 percent of African American adults smoke. Almost all of them – 86.2 percent – have tried to quit. Nationally, 33 percent of black men and 34 percent of black women smoke.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • The rate of all kinds of cancer among African Americans has increased 66 percent between 1957 and 1987 – mainly due to lung cancer. During that same 30 years, the rate of lung cancer among black men increased by 259 percent and quadrupled for black women.
    American Cancer Society, “Cancer Facts and Figures for Minority Americans,” 1991
  • Smoking rates among African-American teenagers have sharply dropped while white teenagers are still smoking at high rates. In 1976, according to a federal survey of high school seniors nationwide, 29 percent of white teens smoked and 27 percent of the African- American teenagers smoked. In 1993, 23 percent of white teenagers smoked, compared to only 4 percent of black teenagers.
    “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • Although the smoking rate for African American teens dropped dramatically between 1974 and 1991, the trend is reversing. More and more kids and teens are smoking in the 1990s – an increase found across all class and racial lines. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,”American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • The tobacco industry donates hundreds of thousands of dollars a year to African American community groups. In 1987, the United Negro College Fund received $267,000 from RJ Reynolds, $120,000 from Philip Morris and $32,000 from Brown & Williamson.
    APF Reporter, Spring 1988; “Targeting the African American community” Kaiser Family Foundation, 1991
  • Black and Hispanic neighborhoods had significantly more tobacco and alcohol ads than white or Asian neighborhoods. Tobacco billboards were most common in black neighborhoods – appearing at 2.4 times the citywide rate.
    Schooler and Basil study, 1990, Surgeon General’s report
  • Black smokers are more likely to buy mentholated cigarettes than are white smokers (75 to 23 percent). Cigarette companies target African American audiences with mentholated cigarette advertisements.
    “African Americans and Smoking,” Center for Disease Control, 1990
  • In Washington state, 54.5 percent of African American adults say it’s easy for kids to buy tobacco in their community. About 86 percent of black adults surveyed said tobacco ads should be restricted or not allowed at all. More than half said tobacco companies should not be allowed to distribute free samples, and 33 percent said the practice should be resticted.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • In Washington, 21 percent of African American women smoked during pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoked during pregnancy. Nationally, maternal smoking is highest among white mothers, who smoke at a rate of 21 percent, compared to black mothers at 15.9 percent. Hispanic and Asian mothers smoke at an even lower rate of 7 percent, and less, respectively.
    Washington State Department of Health, “Health Data Report on People of Color,” 1992; National Center for Health Statistics

Tobacco and Hispanics

  • About 284,000 Hispanics live in Washington state, representing 5.3 percent of the state’s population.
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • In Washington state, 26 percent of Hispanic adults smoke. Two-thirds of them (67.4 percent) have tried to quit.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • After nearly a decade of decline, smoking among all races of kids and teens is increasing. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • Among teens in grades 9-12, 8 percent of Hispanic males and 5.7 percent of Hispanic females report frequent smoking.
    American Lung Association, July 1995
  • In Washington state, 61.5 percent of Hispanic adults say it’s easy for kids to buy tobacco in their community. Only 19.4 percent say it’s difficult.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • Hispanic and black neighborhoods had significantly more tobacco and alcohol ads than white or Asian neighborhoods. Tobacco billboards were most common in black neighborhoods – appearing at 2.4 times the citywide rate.
    Schooler and Basil study, 1990, Surgeon General’s report
  • The National Association of Hispanic Publications reports that 350 Hispanic newspapers receive about 20 percent of their ad revenues from alcohol and tobacco companies.
  • In Washington, 80 percent of Hispanic adults believe tobacco ads should be restricted or not allowed at all. Only 7.5 percent say ads should not be restricted.
    Current Population Survey, 1994
  • Nationally, maternal smoking is highest among white mothers, who smoke at a rate of 21 percent, compared to black mothers at 15.9 percent. Hispanic and Asian mothers smoke at an even lower rate of 7 percent, and less, respectively.
    National Center for Health Statistics
  • In Washington, just 7.5 percent of Hispanic mothers smoke through pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoke during pregnancy.
    Washington State Health Department, “Health Data Report on People of Color,” 1992

Tobacco and Native Americans

  • Some 92,000 Native Americans live in Washington, representing 1.7 percent of the state’s population .
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • Some 42.2 percent of Native American men and 54.1 percent of Native American women smoke. In addition, 14.6 percent of Native American men used smokeless tobacco, according to a survey by the Indian Health Service in 1989.
    Washington State Tobacco Prevention and Control Community Assessment, October, 1992
  • Nationally, 30 percent of Native American men and 30 percent of Native American women smoke.
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, U.S. Current Population Survey
  • A 1987 survey of 1,189 sixth, ninth and 11th graders in three Washington school districts found that 34 percent of Native American boys and 24 percent of Native American girls used smokeless tobacco products. In comparison, 20 percent of white boys and 4 percent of white girls used smokeless tobacco.
    Washington State Tobacco Prevention and Control Community Assessment, October, 1992
  • Nationally, smokeless tobacco use by Native American youth on reservations is higher than that of other groups. There is evidence of early, frequent and heavy use of snuff and chewing tobacco by Native American children.
    Schinke, et al 1989, Surgeon General’s report, 1994; and Schinke, 1987
  • After nearly a decade of decline, smoking among all races of kids and teens is increasing. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • In Washington, almost a third of Native American women smoke during pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoke during pregnancy.
    Washington State Health Department, “Health Data Report on People of Color” 1992
  • Smoking rates for Native-American men are over 50% higher than rates among men in other racial or ethnic groups.
    National Health Interview Survey, 1994

Tobacco and Asian Americans

  • Almost 284,000 Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders live in Washington state, representing 5.3 percent of the state’s population.
    Washington State Yearbook, 1995
  • There are 50,000 Southeast Asian immigrants in Washington. In this group, 42.5 percent of men smoke, a rate 1.6 times greater than the prevalence of smoking of all men in Washington (25.5 percent), and 5.7 percent of women smoke, one quarter the rate of all women in Washington.
    “Topics in Minority Health,” MMWR, Nov. 13, 1992
  • Nationally, 22 percent of Asian American men and 11 percent of Asian American women smoke.
    National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, U.S. Current Population Survey
  • After nearly a decade of decline, smoking among all races of kids and teens is increasing. Smoking among eighth-graders increased 30 percent between 1991 and 1994, from 14.3 percent in 1991 to 18.6 percent in 1994. Among high school seniors, the smoking rate began rising in 1992, from 27.8 percent to 31.2 percent in 1994.
    University of Michigan, “Monitoring the Future” survey, July 1995; and “Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among U.S. Adolescents, 1974 Through 1991,” American Journal of Public Health, January 1995
  • Smoking rates are highest in urban areas, regardless of sex, education, age, and race.
    Dept. of Health and Human Services, “Prevalence of Smoking – Missouri, 1989-1991,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 7, 1995
  • In Washington, just 9 percent of Asian American women smoke through pregnancy. Overall, 23 percent of Washington women smoke during pregnancy. Nationally, maternal smoking is highest among white mothers, who smoke at a rate of 21 percent, compared to black mothers at 15.9 percent. Hispanic and Asian mothers smoke at an even lower rate of 7 percent, and less, respectively.
    Washington State Health Department, “Health Data Report on People of color,” 1992; National Center for Health Statistics
  • The Asian American Health Forum in San Franciso reports that awareness of the health risks associated with smoking is minimal in Asia and among Asian immigrants to the U.S. who do not read English. For example, a 1990 survey of adult foreign and American-born Chinese in Oakland, California, found that 40 percent didn’t knw that smoking causes lung cancer.
    The Washington Post, July 16, 1991; and Asian Health Services Survey, 1990
  • While the smoking rate is about 25 percent within the United States, the rate is more than 75 percent for men in some Asian countries. The largest markets for U.S. tobacco products include Japan, Turkey, Hong Kong, and Saudi Arabia.
    Global Trade Information Services, 1994
  • Richard Peto, an epidemiologist at Oxford University, has predicted that because of increased tobaccco consuption in Asia, the annual worldwide death toll will more than triple over the next two or three decades, from about 3 million a year to 10 million a year, a fifth of them in China. He projects that in China, 50 million children alive today will eventually die from tobacco-related diseases.
    New York Times, May 15, 1994
  • Lung cancer rates are very low among Japanese and Filipino Americans and slightly lower among Chinese Americans than white or black Americans. These rates directly reflect smoking behaviors, and will change as minorities adapt or discard smoking practices.
    Cancer Facts and Figures for Minority Americans 1991

Secondhand Smoke in Restaurants

  • At least 450 restaurants in Snohomish and King Counties banned smoking in all dining sections in 1994. As recently as 1982 only 12 restaurants in the area provided completely smoke-free dining.
    American Cancer Society, American Lung Association and Fresh Air for Non-Smokers, May 1994
  • About 153,000 Washington state residents work in the restaurant industry where 43% of all residents food money is spent.
    Washington State Employment Security Department, September 1994; Restaurant Association of Washington, 1994
  • Researchers measuring the air in more than 400 restaurants and 600 homes found restaurant workers were exposed to levels of secondhand smoke twice as high as other office workers and 1.5 times higher than persons living with a smoker. In bars, workers’ secondhand smoke intake was at least four times higher than in offices and homes.
    UC Berkeley/UCSC Preventive Medicine Residency Program, JAMA, July 28, 1993
  • Restaurants that allow smoking can have six times the pollution of a busy highway.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office on Smoking Or Health
  • A huge majority of diners think smoking in restaurants should be banned, according to a 18,000-person survey by Zagat Survey, publisher of restaurant, hotel, resort and spa guides. Seventy percent of New York residents agreed all smoking in restaurants should be banned; 79 percent in San Francisco and 81 percent in Los Angeles also agreed. Results were published Sept. 29.
    Zagat Survey, September 1994
  • Fifty-six percent of adults would rather dine at a restaurant that banned smoking entirely than one in which smoking was permitted.
    National Restaurant Association, January 1993
  • The National Council of Chain Restaurants, which has 90,000 restaurant members, supports a ban on smoking in all public buildings, including restaurants. A third of their 90,000 members already ban or restrict smoking.
    Washington Post, Feb. 24, 1994
  • Thirteen cities to completely ban smoking in restaurants had no statistically significant loss of business to restaurants in neighboring communities without such laws. In Lodi, Calif., where nearly one-quarter of the 51,000 population smokes, restaurant sales totalled $10 million in 1990 – and remained the same 20 months after the smoke-free laws were in place.
    Stanton Glantz, Lisa Smith, University of California, San Francisco, Oct. 27, 1993
  • City bans on smoking in restaurants don’t significantly impact restaurant sales. Researchers who examined tax records and total retail sales for restaurants in 15 smoke-free communities between 1986 and 1993 found such laws did not affect the fraction of retail sales that went to restaurants or total restaurant sales.
    University of California, San Francisco, “The Effect of Ordinances Requiring Smoke-Free Restaurants on Restaurant Sales,” July 1994
  • Since 1985, nearly 50 jurisdictions, including Puyallup, have banned smoking in restaurants.
    Washington Post, Aug. 3, 1993, Puyallup City Council, September 1994

Secondhand Smoke and Kids

The Children’s Health Index, a nationwide survey of parents sponsored by the magazine PREVENTION, included exposure to second-hand smoke as one of the 15 factors by which it measures children’s overall health. Some of the index’s other factors included wearing seatbelts and bicycle helmets, knowing how to dial 911, and receiving regular check-ups with the doctor and dentist.
The survey said, “The overall health of America’s children would be improved if more parents quit smoking.” It reported the following findings regarding children’s exposure to second-hand smoke:

  • 43 percent of children live in a household with someone who smokes tobacco.
  • 79 percent of children living in smoking households were rated as having “very good” or “excellent” health, as compared to 89 percent of kids in non-smoking households.
  • Children who live in households with an income of $25,000 or less are more likely to be exposed to second-hand smoke. Regardless of income level, however, children in non-smoking households tend to be healthier than those in smoking households.
    The survey, conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates, interviewed 766 parents nationwide in November, 1994.
    Source: “Children’s Health Index,” PREVENTION, September 27, 1995.
  • More young people are killed by parental smoking than by all other unintentional injuries combined.
  • 5.4 million children suffer annually from non-fatal asthma and ear infections as a result of parental smoking, requiring $4.6 billion in treatment each year.
    Source: Study by University of Wisconsin, found in the July 1997 edition of Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.